In Western conceptualizations, biological sex (body), gender, and sexuality are conceived of as “naturally” linked.

Question 1: 
In Western conceptualizations, biological sex (body), gender, and sexuality are conceived of as “naturally” linked.
a) Describe how and explain what this connection means for lived experiences of gender and sexual expression.
b) Then provide and describe two examples from the course material that challenge this “natural connection.” Provide citations/references to course material.

Question 2: 
a) What are elements of a Native American worldview? Name two important concepts described by Tinker or Kidwell/Noley/Tinker, and explain them in your own words. 
b) Apply our preferred theory of religion (Magesa, using Geertz, p.2-3): Use the “circle” as symbol (see Kidwell/Noley/Tinker). What meanings does the circle as symbol entail (draw on other readings here as well, like Tinker and Mann)? In which ways does it help illustrate morality/ethics/the ordering of life? Be as specific as your sources allow you to. Use citations/references.

Example for b) Using “triangle” as symbol: The triangle orders what it entails with something/someone on top, others below, depending on value assigned. Using a specific example to illustrate (economics in a feudal system, family-kinship in medieval times), I can describe how the triangle symbolizes certain meanings and values (be specific here), how these meanings and values explain and maintain certain order in life life (e.g. economically or in the family), I can refer to the ways in which rules, policies, moods, motivations,…(be specific here) operate within a structure that reinforces what the triangle “tells” me / “means” in my reality (be specific), and how what the triangle stands for is reinforced (be specific). 

Answer Model

Biological sex refers to the human anatomy as male, female or intersex. It consists of internal and external sexual organs, hormones and chromosomes. Therefore, biological sex defines human beings as either male, female or intersex and describes internal and external traits- including sexual and reproductive anatomy, the genetic makeup and human hormones. On the other hand, gender refers to the range of biological, physical, behavioral and mental traits pertaining to and distinguishing the link between femininity and masculinity. Human sexuality refers to the capacity that an individual manifests that enable him or her to have erotic responses and experiences (Bolin & Whelehan, 2008). In the western conceptualizations, gender, biological sex and human sexuality are considered naturally ….

1. a) Natural Connection

            Western nations have advanced in areas of research. Various scholars have expressed different concerns regarding the natural connection between biological sex, gender and sexuality. First and foremost, most of the researchers argue that, depending on the usage and context, gender may be used to mean biological sex, sex-based social arrangements, or gender identity (Oakley, 2005). On the same note, the same researcher believes that human sexuality can exhibit biological, spiritual and emotional aspects. The biological characteristics of sexuality encompass the reproductive functions as well as the fundamental biological drive, present in all species (Bolin & Whelehan, 2008). The emotional and physical traits of sexuality comprise of the link that subsists between persons and ….

            It is interesting to note that at puberty stage, all humans portray remarkable interest in sexual relationships. According to western scholars, it is undeniably true that an individual sexual orientation hugely influence their sexual attraction and interest on fellow humans particularly of the other gender. Biologists have also conceded that sexual orientation is genetically ….

b) Challenging the Natural Connection

            The recent studies concerning the aspects of biological sex, gender and sexuality tend to provide an enough prove that there is nothing like the alleged natural connection. The distinction between gender and sex differentiates gender, a person’s lifestyle or individual identification of ones gender, from sex, the biological composition of a person’s reproductive anatomy and ….

The consensus among scholars is that all human behaviors are phenotypes. This means that human behaviors are complex and sophisticated interactions of both environment and biology. Therefore, the nature versus nature categorization is completely misleading. The expression “sex differences” is basically employed to …

            Furthermore, the size of sex cells, technically known as gametes, is the defining aspect of the male and female sexes. As per the definition, females have large sex cells (ova); males have smaller sex sells (sperms). In humans, typical female or male sexual differentiation encompasses the absence or presence of the Y chromosome, the sex hormones, the gonads’ type, the inner …

2 a) Native American Worldview

The elements of a Native American worldview are centered on the question of gender. First and foremost, there is a remarkable contradiction in identifying a social category based on anatomy. The contradiction arises due to the failure to establish the fundamental disparities …

Moreover, another element of the Native American worldview is that they believed that generalizing the role of women as role of females is distorting the reality. They challenged the stereotypical description of females as wives based solely on their roles in a marriage. This is because ….

Two important concepts

i. The up-down Image Schema

            An up-down image schema refers to the omnipresent American theoretical metaphor. The metaphor creates the hierarchical philosophies that dominate the euro-colonial world of Christian conquest. It is seems to put some individuals over others, one party seems to be in control always. The up may refer to a top leader who is on top of the hierarchy. In the past, European philosophers considered the whites as the top race followed by other races in order of skin color, with blacks being the last in the hierarchy. In the western gender hierarchy, man is considered ….

This order of creation notion gradually evolves politically into the valorization idea of meritocracy as an ethical issue in the American intellectual, political and socioeconomic culture. Particularly starting in the 16th century, human beings come into existence before all other forms of creation. Capitalist economies operate with an up-down hierarchy of authority, similar to modern …

ii. Indian creation Theory

            All Indians have their own stories explaining the origin of human beings. These stories differ considerably from the western stories of creation. Indian societies believe that the dry land was created by a god know as bull elk suggesting that Bull elk is their creator (Mann, 2000). However, this suggestion is wrong because it is believed that human beings existed long before this god come into existence. Nonetheless, Indians suggest that although Bull elk did not create human beings He must have created the other living things to assist man survive. Therefore, Elk took ….

2. b) Circle as a Symbol

            Different symbols may be used to describe human behaviors or traits. This case study uses a circle to portray how human social life revolves from one form to another. A circle symbol implies that human life is continues and that one action leads to another continuously. In other words, every action executed triggers a reaction forming a trend that is continuous throughout a person’s life. To start with, a person has the right to choose between doing the morally upright thing. Such a …

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